To begin with, those going to the site can break down the data by grade, state, "race," and sex, and even test for statistical significance when making comparative requests. It's quite impressive, so that's what I did.

First, with regard to "race," there are the typical concerns. The sample size is just over 16,000, so its representativeness is suspect, especially when considering certain groups. The "Asian" group for instance, has just under 750 subjects, and the rates of risk tend to be low when compared to other groups. Of course, "Asians" are comprised of Japanese, Chinese, Laotians, Filipinos, Cambodians, etc. Southeast Asians typically have much higher risk rates than East Asians, so it's a problematic and small "umbrella" category, but one that would become even smaller if broken down by all the ethnic groups that comprise the "Asian" rubric. Same concern for "Hispanics" -- how do specific Latino groups differ?

Okay, now that that's out of the way, let's look at the rates of different types of violence, compared by "race" and sex. I've

**bolded**the two groups (males and females combined) with the highest prevalence rates for each type of violence, also providing percentages ("yes" respondents) and sample sizes for each group.

**SCHOOL VIOLENCE**

1. Carried a weapon on school property on at least 1 day (for example, a gun, knife, or club during the 30 days before survey)

- Total 5.6% (N=16,256) females 2.9% (N=8,239) males 8.0% (N=7,958)
- American Indian or Alaskan Native (AI/AN) total 4.2% (N=138) females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=81)
- Asian total 3.6% (N=746) females 0.9% (N=402) males 6.3% (N=344)
- Black total 5.3% (N=2,795) females 4.0% (N=1,437) males 6.6% (N=1,351)
**Hispanic total 5.8% (N=4,712)**females 3.7% (N=2,424) males 7.9% (N=2,277)**Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) total 9.8% (N=177)**females N/A (N=85) males N/A (N=91)- White total 5.6% (N=6,848) females 2.4% (N=3,415) males 8.3% (N=3,426)
**Multiple race total 5.8% (N=552)**females 4.7% (N=309) males 7.3% (N=243)

2. Did not go to school because they felt unsafe at school or on their way to or from school on at least 1 day (during the 30 days before survey)

- Total 5.0% (N=16,371) females 5.3% (N=8,268) males 4.6% (N=8,040)
**AI/AN total 8.7% (N=139)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)- Asian total 2.9% (N=749) females 3.4% (N=403) males 2.3% (N=346)
- Black total 6.3% (N=2,817) females 6.6% (N=1,445) males 5.9% (N=1,365)
- Hispanic total 8.1% (N=4,750) females 8.3% (N=2,432) males 7.9% (N=2,305)
**NHOPI total 10.6% (N=179)**females N/A (N=85) males N/A (N=94)- White total 3.5% (N=6,886) females 3.8% (N=3,424) males 3.3% (N=3,455)
- Multiple race total 5.5% (N=558) females 5.4% (N=311) males 5.6% (N=247)

3. Threatened or injured with a weapon on school property one or more times (for example, a gun, knife, or club during the 12 months before survey)

- Total 7.7% (N=16,367) females 5.5% (N=8,264) males 9.6% (N=8,041)
**AI/AN total 16.5% (N=139)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)- Asian total 5.5% (N=750) females 1.6% (N=403) males 9.4% (N=347)
- Black total 9.4% (N=2,828) females 7.4% (N=1,448) males 11.2% (N=1,373)
- Hispanic total 9.1% (N=4,742) females 6.3% (N=2,429) males 12.0% (N=2,301)
**NHOPI total 12.5% (N=179)**females N/A (N=84) males N/A (N=94)- White total 6.4% (N=6,883) females 4.9% (N=3,423) males 7.8% (N=3,453)
- Multiple race total 9.2% (N=557) females 5.2% (N=311) males 14.0% (N=246)

4. In a physical fight on school property one or more times (during 12 months before survey)

- Total 11.1% (N=16,089) females 6.7% (N=8,150) males 15.1% (N=7,879)
**AI/AN total 20.7% (N=135)**females N/A (N=53) males N/A (N=80)- Asian total 7.7% (N=732) females 4.1% (N=397) males 11.4% (N=335)
**Black total 17.4% (N=2,769)**females 12.5% (N=1,430) males 22.2% (N=1,332)- Hispanic total 13.5% (N=4,676) females 9.3% (N=2,400) males 17.7% (N=2,263)
- NHOPI total 14.8% (N=175) females N/A (N=83) males N/A (N=91)
- White total 8.6% (N=6,771) females 4.3% (N=3,371) males 12.4% (N=3,394)
- Multiple race total 12.4% (N=541) females 7.5% (N=302) males 18.3% (N=239)

5. Bullied on school property (during 12 months before survey)

- Total 19.9% (N=15,633) females 21.2% (N=7,838) males 18.7% (N=7,734)
**AI/AN total 33.8% (N=133)**females N/A (N=52) males N/A (N=79)- Asian total 17.5% (N=650) females 13.9% (N=344) males 21.0% (N=306)
- Black total 13.7% (N=2,728) females 15.5% (N=1,399) males 11.9% (N=1,322)
- Hispanic total 18.5% (N=4,440) females 18.9% (N=2,254) males 18.0% (N=2,175)
- NHOPI total 20.4% (N=146) females N/A (N=68) males N/A (N=77
- White total 21.6% (N=6,756) females 23.5% (N=3,341) males 19.9% (N=3,409)
**Multiple race total 23.9% (N=497)**females 22.8% (N=273) males 25.1% (N=224)

**COMMUNITY VIOLENCE**

6. Carried a weapon on at least 1 day (for example, a gun, knife, or a club during the 30 days before survey)

- Total 17.5% (N=16,110) females 7.1% (N=8,203) males 27.1% (N=7,848)
**AI/AN total 20.7% (N=137)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=80)- Asian total 8.4% (N=745) females 3.8% (N=401) males 13.0% (N=344)
- Black total 14.4% (N=2,746) females 7.8% (N=1,427) males 21.0% (N=1,312)
- Hispanic total 17.2% (N=4,667) females 7.9% (N=2,412) males 26.5% (N=2,244)
**NHOPI total 20.3% (N=175)**females N/A (N=84) males N/A (N=90)- White total 18.6% (N=6,807) females 6.5% (N=3,405) males 29.3% (N=3,395)
- Multiple race total 17.9% (N=550) females 10.9% (N=308) males 26.2% (N=242)

7. Carried a gun on at least 1 day (during the 30 days before survey)

- Total 5.9% (N=15,664) females 1.7% (N=7,916) males 9.8% (N=7,690)
**AI/AN total 7.6% (N=135)**females N/A (N=54) males N/A (N=79)- Asian total 3.4% (N=662) females 0.8% (N=347) males 5.7% (N=315)
**Black total 7.6% (N=2,736)**females 1.8% (N=1,417) males 13.2% (N=1,312)- Hispanic total 5.1% (N=4,430) females 1.9% (N=2,266) males 8.2% (N=2,154)
**NHOPI total 10.4% (N=145)**females N/A (N=69) males N/A (N=75)- White total 5.8% (N=6,778) females 1.5% (N=3,377) males 9.5% (N=3,395)
- Multiple race total 7.2% (N=502) females 3.3% (N=279) males 11.7% (N=223)

8. In a physical fight 1 or more times (during the 12 months before survey)

- Total 31.5% (N=16,130) females 22.9% (N=8,183) males 39.3% (N=7,890)
**AI/AN total 42.4% (N=135)**females N/A (N=53) males N/A (N=80)- Asian total 18.9% (N=737) females 13.2% (N=399) males 24.9% (N=338)
**Black total 41.1% (N=2,759)**females 33.9% (N=1,426) males 48.3% (N=1,326)- Hispanic total 36.2% (N=4,672) females 28.5% (N=2,404) males 43.8% (N=2,255)
- NHOPI total 32.6% (N=174) females N/A (N=83) males N/A (N=90)
- White total 27.8% (N=6,825) females 18.2% (N=3,402) males 36.0% (N=3,417)
- Multiple race total 34.2% (N=549) females 26.7% (N=306) males 42.9% (N=243)

9. Injured in a physical fight one or more times (injuries had to be treated by a doctor or nurse, during 12 months before survey)

- Total 3.8% (N=15,749) females 2.2% (N=7,938) males 5.1% (N=7,752)
**AI/AN total 7.9% (N=134)**females N/A (N=53) males N/A (N=79)- Asian total 2.9% (N=702) females 1.7% (N=378) males 4.1% (N=324)
- Black total 5.7% (N=2,748) females 4.4% (N=1,414) males 7.0% (N=1,327)
- Hispanic total 4.7% (N=4,462) females 3.3% (N=2,270) males 6.0% (N=2,181)
**NHOPI total 7.3% (N=164)**females N/A (N=79) males N/A (N=84)- White total 2.9% (N=6,732) females 1.3% (N=3,343) males 4.2% (N=3,383)
- Multiple race total 3.9% (N=528) females 1.9% (N=294) males 6.2% (N=234)

10. Hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend (during the 12 months before the survey)

- Total 9.8% (N=16,217) females 9.3% (N=8,196) males 10.3% (N=7,957)
**AI/AN total 13.4% (N=139)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)- Asian total 5.5% (N=740) females 5.3% (N=399) males 5.8% (N=341)
**Black total 14.3% (N=2,803)**females 14.8% (N=1,443) males 13.8% (N=1,353)- Hispanic total 11.5% (N=4,713) females 11.4% (N=2,414) males 11.7% (N=2,286)
- NHOPI total 13.1% (N=177) females N/A (N=84) males N/A (N=92)
- White total 8.0% (N=6,803) females 7.2% (N=3,380) males 8.8% (N=3,416)
- Multiple race total 12.2% (N=548) females 11.2% (N=307) males 13.4% (N=241)

11. Every physically forced to have sexual intercourse (when they did not want to)

- Total 7.4% (N=15,735) females 10.5% (N=7,926) males 4.5% (N=7,748)
**AI/AN total 13.1% (N=135)**females N/A (N=52) males N/A (N=81)- Asian total 5.7% (N=733) females 6.4% (N=396) males 4.9% (N=337)
- Black total 10.0% (N=2,492) females 12.0% (N=1,286) males 7.9% (N=1,201)
- Hispanic total 8.4% (N=4,680) females 11.2% (N=2,391) males 5.7% (N=2,276)
**NHOPI total 11.9% (N=175)**females N/A (N=83) males N/A (N=91)- White total 6.3% (N=6,696) females 10.0% (N=3,309) males 3.2% (N=3,380)
- Multiple race total 9.3% (N=540) females 11.2% (N=301) males 6.9% (N=239)

**SUICIDE**

12. Felt sad or hopeless (almost every day for 2 or more weeks in a row so that they stopped doing some usual activities during the 12 months before survey)

- Total 26.1% (N=16,232) females 33.9% (N=8,199) males 19.1% (N=7,969)
- AI/AN total 30.8% (N=139) females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)
- Asian total 23.5% (N=741) females 26.4% (N=399) males 20.5% (N=342)
- Black total 27.7% (N=2,811) females 37.5% (N=1,444) males 17.9% (N=1,360)
**Hispanic total 31.6% (N=4,723)**females 39.7% (N=2,420) males 23.6% (N=2,290)**NHOPI total 33.4% (N=177)**females N/A (N=83) males N/A (N=93)- White total 23.7% (N=6,801) females 31.1% (N=3,381) males 17.2% (N=3,413)
- Multiple race total 31.1% (N=544) females 35.8% (N=304) males 25.4% (N=240)

13. Seriously considered attempting suicide (during 12 months before the survey)

- Total 13.8% (N=16,200) females 17.4% (N=8,189) males 10.5% (N=7,966)
**AI/AN total 19.0% (N=139)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)- Asian total 14.9% (N=740) females 16.9% (N=399) males 12.9% (N=341)
- Black total 13.0% (N=2,805) females 18.1% (N=1,438) males 7.8% (N=1,360)
- Hispanic total 15.4% (N=4,722) females 20.2% (N=2,417) males 10.7% (N=2,292)
**NHOPI total 19.2% (N=179)**females N/A (N=84) males N/A (N=94)- White total 13.1% (N=6,792) females 16.1% (N=3,377) males 10.5% (N=3,408)
- Multiple race total 18.0% (N=545) females 21.2% (N=306) males 14.3% (N=239)

14. Made a plan about how they would attempt suicide (during the 12 months before survey)

- Total 10.9% (N=16,213) females 13.2% (N=8,183) males 8.6% (N=7,965)
**AI/AN total 17.0% (N=139)**females N/A (N=55) males N/A (N=82)- Asian total 12.6% (N=740) females 14.7% (N=398) males 10.4% (N=342)
- Black total 9.8% (N=2,798) females 13.3% (N=1,433) males 6.2% (N=1,358)
- Hispanic total 12.2% (N=4,720) females 15.4% (N=2,418) males 9.0% (N=2,289)
**NHOPI total 13.2% (N=177)**females N/A (N=84) males N/A (N=92)- White total 10.3% (N=6,796) females 12.3% (N=3,376) males 8.5% (N=3,413)
**Multiple race total 13.2% (N=545)**females 14.4% (N=306) males 11.8% (N=239)

15. Attempted suicide 1 or more times (during the 12 months before survey)

- Total 6.3% (N=14,609) females 8.1% (N=7,475) males 4.6% (N=7,082)
- AI/AN total 10.0% (N=122) females N/A (N=51) males N/A (N=69)
- Asian total 4.0% (N=681) females 3.7% (N=367) males 4.3% (N=314)
- Black total 7.9% (N=2,308) females 10.4% (N=1,206) males 5.4% (N=1,096)
- Hispanic total 8.1% (N=4,132) females 11.1% (N=2,151) males 5.1% (N=1,972)
**NHOPI total 11.9% (N=155)**females N/A (N=73) males N/A (N=81)- White total 5.0% (N=6,459) females 6.5% (N=3,237) males 3.8% (N=3,215)
**Multiple race total 12.4% (N=509)**females 13.7% (N=289) males 10.8% (N=220)

Okay, that's a lot to unpack. To begin with, there are some prevalence rates that merit discussions in their totality. The last survey item on suicide attempt(s) surprised me a bit. Over 1 in every 20 youths reports a suicide attempt within the last year. Survey item #11 on sexual assault also surprised me, with about 1 in 10 girls reporting forced sexual intercourse. These are American high school students. I knew these rates were high for young adults, but not this high for high schoolers.

Now onto the prevalence rates by "race." For 12/15 survey items displayed here, "American Indian or Alaskan Native" youth had either the highest or second highest prevalence rates. They had the highest rates for 8/15 survey items. "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander" youth were in the "top two" for 11/15 survey items. None of the other construted "race" groups ranked among the "top two" slots nearly as much.

One could easily aruge the sample sizes for these groups are too small to make generalizations, and thus, they are not representative. That's a valid concern. At the same time, one cannot help but notice that these groups are also the *colonized* groups in the United States (well, for the NHOPI group, Hawaiians are). True, their proportion of the total U.S. teen population is small, but that is largely because of their colonial history.

These consistently high rates across numerous youth violence constructs demand further research with those communities and further illustrate colonialism's deleterious impacts on indigenous peoples. Without strong data, these communities have a more difficult time advocating for services and policy change. The feds need to get the concentrated research with indigenous communities conducted, and start providing these communities with more robust youth, family, and occupational resources, now!

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